Switzerland has some of the most scenic train rides in the world. Crossing forests, tunnels and bridges across the Alps, the Glacier Express is a dream for a lot of people. The magic of this train takes another dimension in winter when all the mountains are covered of fresh snow.
Switzerland is a mountainous Central European country, home to numerous lakes, villages and the high peaks of the Alps. Its cities contain medieval quarters, with landmarks like capital Bern’s Zytglogge clock tower and Lucerne’s wooden chapel bridge. The country is also known for its ski resorts and hiking trails. Banking and finance are key industries, and Swiss watches and chocolate are world renowned.― Google
Called Helvetia in ancient times, Switzerland in 1291 was a league of cantons in the Holy Roman Empire. Fashioned around the nucleus of three German forest districts of Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden, the Swiss Confederation slowly added new cantons. In 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia gave Switzerland its independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
French revolutionary troops occupied the country in 1798 and named it the Helvetic Republic, but Napoléon in 1803 restored its federal government. By 1815, the French- and Italian-speaking peoples of Switzerland had been granted political equality.
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna guaranteed the neutrality and recognized the independence of Switzerland. In the revolutionary period of 1847, the Catholic cantons seceded and organized a separate union called the Sonderbund, but they were defeated and rejoined the federation.
WORLD’S STEEPEST RAILWAY || pilatus Railway switzerland
the livepool and manchester railway is oldest railway which serviving from 15 september 1830 . it was build by george stephenson who also know for inventor o railway engine 1825 ,it was first public intercity rail line in the world pilatus railway is steepest railway in the world which is 126 year old railway system connecting between alpanchted to pilatus Kulom.
The Pilatus railway is a mountain railway in Switzerland and is the steepest rack railway in the world, with a maximum gradient of 48% and an average gradient of 35%. The line runs from Alpnachstad, on Lake Lucerne, to a terminus near the Esel summit of Mount Pilatus at an altitude of 2,073 m (6,801 ft), which makes it the highest railway in Obwalden and the second highest in Central Switzerland after the Furka line. At Alpnachstad, the Pilatus railway connects with steamers on Lake Lucerne and with trains on the Brünigbahn line of Zentralbahn
The train ready to leave, June 4, 1889
Then Eduard Locher, an engineer with great practical experience, proposed an alternative project with the maximal grade raised to 48% to cut the route in half. Conventional systems at the time could not handle such gradients because the vertical cogwheel that is pressed to the rack from above may, under higher gradients, jump out of the engagement with the rack, eliminating the train’s main driving and braking power. Instead, Locher placed a horizontal double rack between the two rails with the rack teeth facing each side. This was engaged by two cogwheels carried on vertical shafts under the car.
This design eliminated the possibility of the cogwheels climbing out of the rack, and additionally prevented the car from toppling over, even under the severe cross winds common in the area. The system was also capable of guiding the car without the need for flanges on the wheels. Indeed, the first cars on Pilatus had no flanges on running wheels but they were later added to allow cars to be moved through tracks without rack rails during maintenance. The line was opened using steam traction on 4 June 1889 and was electrified on 15 May 1937, using an overhead electric supply of 1550 V DC.
The government provided no subsidy for the construction of the line. Instead, Locher established his own company “Locher Systems” to build the railway. The railway was built entirely with private capital and has remained financially viable throughout its life.
The Pilatus railway was named a Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 2001
The line still uses original rack rails that are now over 100 years old. While they have worn down, it was discovered that this can be fixed by simply turning the rails over, providing a new wearing surface that would be sufficient for the next century as well. The car electric engines are used as generators to brake the car during descent, but this electricity is not reused – it is just dissipated as heat through resistance grids. Originally, the steam engines were used as compressors to provide dynamic braking, since the use of friction brakes alone is not practical on such steep slopes.
The Bernina Express – World’s Most Beautiful Train’s Panoramic 4K Video
This Panoramic video through Open Carriage of Bernina Express Train shows Highlights of the route from Davos Platz (Swiss) to Tirano (Italy). Watch and Enjoy Pristine Swiss Landscapes. Bernina Express: Crossing 196 bridges, the highest railway in the Swiss Alps climbs up to the 2253m to the glistening Glaciers (Alp Grüm Palü, Morteratsch Glacier and Ospizio Bernina region) before descending to the palms of Italy far below. …….from Mountains to Glaciers to Lakes and Palms!
Enjoyed the video ? Be sure to hit the LIKE button and SUBSCRIBE ! *Disclaimer : – This video is NOT an advertisement. – Due to tight schedule in winter, the train shown in the video is not the actual Glacier Express but rides the same tracks. FOLLOW ME ON : Instagram : https://www.instagram.com/exploremarco/ Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/exploremarco/ Twitter : https://www.twitter.com/exploremarco/